How Do Special Needs Trusts Work?
A trust of any kind if a document that expresses your wishes while you are alive and after you have passed. The need for a dedicated trust for loved ones differs with the situation or issues of the family. Getting this wrong can lead to financial devastation, explains the article "Take special care with Special Needs trusts" from the Herald Bulletin.
A Special Needs Trust of supplemental trust provides protection and management for assets for specific beneficiaries. The trustee is in charge of the assets in the trust during the grantor's life or at his death and distributes to the beneficiary as directed by the trust.
The purpose of a Special Needs or supplemental trust is to help people who receive government benefits because they are physically or mentally challenged or are chronically ill. Most of these benefits are means-tested. The rules about outside income are very strict. An inheritance would disqualify a Special Needs person from receiving these benefits, possibly putting them in dire circumstances.
The value of assets placed in a Special Needs trust does not count against the benefits. However, this area of the law is complex, and requires the help of an experienced elder law estate planning attorney. Mistakes could have lifelong consequences.
The trustee manages assets and disperses funds when needed, or at the direction of the trust. Selecting a trustee is extremely important, since the duties of a Special Needs trust could span decades. The person in charge must be familiar with the government programs and benefits and stay up to date with any changes that might impact the decisions of when to release funds. Things they consider include:
- How should disbursements be made, balancing current needs and future longevity?
- Does the request align with the rules of the trust and the assistance program requirements?
- Will anyone else benefit from the expenditure, family members or the trustee? The trustee has a fiduciary responsibility to protect the beneficiary, first and foremost.
Parents who leave life insurance, stocks, bonds, or cash to all children equally may be putting their Special Needs child in jeopardy. Well-meaning family members who wish to take care of their relative must be made aware of the risk of leaving assets to a Special Needs individual. These conversations should take place no matter how awkward.
An experienced elder law estate planning attorney will be able to create a Special Needs trust that will work for the individual and for the family.
Reference: Herald Bulletin (March 13, 2021) "Take special care with Special Needs trusts"